It seems that everyone is going crazy for Katy Perry’s latest music video, Dark Horse, which presents a very colourful, if somewhat inaccurate, view of Ancient Egypt. So I thought I’d jump on the latest “Egyptomania” bandwagon and look at a famous sculpture that can be seen in the Tomb Raider: The Last Revelation level, Cleopatra’s Palaces.
Perhaps you may recall seeing a large blue disc painted on (or carved out of) the ceiling of one of the rooms in the palace and decorated with the images of gods and animals. But if you can’t remember it, don’t worry. Here’s a handy screenshot to help jog your memory.
The disc is modelled on the Egyptian bas-relief known as the Dendera Zodiac, which was found at the Temple of Hathor in Dendera during the Napoleonic campaign in Egypt at the start of the nineteenth century. Its discovery by the French archaeologist and artist Vivant Denon in 1799 was the start of academia’s fascination with the sculpture and when Denon published his drawings of the Zodiac in his book Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte in 1802, it sparked a heated debate about the age of the sculpture and, by extension, that of the Earth itself amongst scientists and religious authorities.
As its name suggests, the Dendera Zodiac is a planisphere, or star chart, depicting the constellations (including the 12 signs of the zodiac) and the five planets known to the ancients at that time. The sky, represented by the disc, is held up by four women (i.e. the four pillars of heaven) and falcon-headed spirits while the 36 spirits found around the edge of the disc represent the 36 divisions of the Ancient Egyptian solar calendar (Egyptian solar years consisted of thirty-six 10-day “weeks” plus five intercalary days). Many of the constellations appear to be very similar to those we are familiar with today, albeit with an Ancient Egyptian twist. For example, the zodiac sign Aquarius, the Water-Bearer, is represented by the Egyptian god of the Nile floods, Hapi, while the asterism known as the “Big Dipper” (or “Plough”) is represented by an ox’s foreleg.
In recent years, the French Egyptologist Sylvie Cauville and French astrophysicist Éric Aubourg have worked together to date the map based on the configuration of the planets as seen on the Zodiac, a configuration which occurs only once every thousand years. The two researchers were also able to identify two eclipses: a solar eclipse which occured on 7th March 51 BC, which is illustrated by the goddess Isis holding a baboon (perhaps the god Thoth in his baboon form) to stop it from hiding the sun, and the lunar eclipse of 25th September 52 BC, which is represented by an udjat eye within a circle. The pair concluded that Zodiac depicted the night sky as seen between 15th June and 15th August 50 BC, shortly after the death of the pharaoh Ptolemy XII Auletes, father of Egypt’s last pharaoh, Cleopatra VII.
No one really knows why these particular celestial events were commemorated but Cauville believes that the solar eclipse coincided with the death of Ptolemy XII and that Cleopatra may have commissioned the Zodiac as a way to honour her father’s passing and/or celebrate her own ascension to the throne. This is merely speculation on Cauville’s part but it does seem like the level designers and artists did their research when they worked on the Cleopatra’s Palaces level. However, if you’re hoping to see the real Dendera Zodiac, you won’t find it in Alexandria (site of the fictional palace complex) or even in Dendera itself. In fact, you’d have to visit one of the other places Lara Croft has visited over the years: the Louvre Museum in Paris.
The story of how the Dendera Zodiac found its way to the Louvre Museum is one of derring-do and the highly dubious nature of its procurement has placed the Zodiac at the centre of an ongoing dispute between the museum authorities and Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities, which calls for the repatriation of the Zodiac and other Egyptian artefacts that were illegally acquired by French, British, German, and other foreign nationals.** The Louvre website states that the “Zodiac of Dendera was transported to France in 1821 with the permission of Egyptian ruler Mohamed Ali Pasha” but it neglects to mention how the sculpture was removed from the site in the first place.
In 1820, Sébastien-Louis Saulnier, a collector and antiquarian who had served as a police commissioner under Napoleon, hired the stonemason Jean-Baptiste Lelorrain to remove the Zodiac from the Temple of Hathor and transport it back to Paris. Lelorrain travelled to Egypt under the pretense of acquiring antiquities in Thebes and waited for the opportune moment to begin his work at the temple in Dendera. Through an act of calculated recklessness, he and a team of local workmen used saws and gunpowder to successfully dislodge the Zodiac from the ceiling before using a system of wooden rollers and sledges to load the sandstone slabs onto a waiting riverboat. Lelorrain relied on bribes and political manouvering in order to get the Zodiac onto his ship in Alexandria and back to France, much to the chagrin of the British, who had hoped to claim the sculpture for themselves.
The Zodiac arrived in Paris in the summer of 1822 and was soon snapped up by Louis XVIII for the kingly sum of 150,000 francs and installed in the Royal Library (now the Bibliothèque Nationale de France). It was later moved to the Louvre Museum, where it remains on display today in Room 12 bis. Visitors to the Temple of Hathor must sadly settle for a plaster-cast replica installed on the ceiling of the chapel in which the original Zodiac was found. Only time will tell if the original will eventually make its way back to its rightful home in Dendera.
** The subjects of art repatriation and the ethical and political implications of the antiquities trade are far too complex to delve into here. If you’re interested in these topics and would like to learn more, please visit PostColonialWeb’s page, “The Repatriation of Cultural Objects”, check out the Oriental Institute and Archaeological Institute of America’s 2010 symposium “Who Owns the Past?” (which is available on Youtube), or get yourself a copy of Sharon Waxman’s book Loot: The Battle Over the Stolen Treasures of the Ancient World and/or Colin Renfrew’s book Loot, Legitimacy and Ownership: The Ethical Crisis in Archaeology.
Sources & Further Reading:
- Cleopatra and the Eclipse (Decoding the Heavens)
- Decoding the Ancient Egyptians’ Stone Sky Map (New Scientist)
- Dendera and the Temple of Hathor (Tour Egypt)
- Dendera Zodiac (Wikipedia)
- Dendera Zodiac: The World’s First Horoscope? (Heritage Key/SOTT)
- Late Egyptian Constellations: Denderah Zodiac (History of Constellation and Star Names)
- Mystery of an Ancient Zodiac (Decoding the Heavens)
- Napoleon and the Scientific Expedition to Egypt: The Zodiac of Dendera (Linda Hall Library)
- The Rape of the Nile: Tomb Robbers, Tourists, and Archaeologists in Egypt by Brian M. Fagan, Basic Books (2004)
- The Zodiac at Dendera and the Debate Over the Age of the Earth (The Victorian Web)
- The Zodiac of Dendera (Louvre Museum)